When thinking about concurrent programs, we are sometimes blinded by the notion of bare threads. We create them, start them, join them, and sometimes even
interrupt them, all by operating directly on those tiny little abstractions over several paths of simultaneous execution. At the same time we might be extremely reluctant to directly use synchronization primitives (semaphores, mutexes, etc.), preferring more convenient and tailored solutions – such as thread-safe containers. And this is great, because synchronization is probably the most difficult aspect of concurrent programming. Any place where we can avoid it is therefore one less place to be infested by nasty bugs it could ensue.
So why we still cling to somewhat low-level
Threads for actual execution, while having no problems with specialized solutions for concurrent data exchange and synchronization?… Well, we can be simply unaware that “getting code to execute in parallel” is also something that can benefit from safety and clarity of more targeted approach. In Java, one such approach is oh-so-object-orientedly called executors.
As we might expect, an
Executor is something that executes, i.e. runs, code. Pieces of those code are given it in a form of
Runnables, just like it would happen for regular
Executor itself is an abstract class, so it could be used without any knowledge about queuing policy, scheduling algorithms and any other details of the way it conducts execution of tasks. While this seems feasible in some real cases – such as servicing incoming network requests – executors are useful mainly because they are quite diverse in kind. Their complex and powerful variants are also relatively easy to use.
Simple functions for creating different types of executors are contained within the auxiliary
Executors class. Behind the scenes, most of them have a thread pool which they pull threads from when they are needed to process tasks. This pool may be of fixed or variable size, and can reuse a thread for more than one task,
Depending on how much load we expect and how many threads can we afford to create, the choice is usually between
newFixedThreadPool. There is also peculiar (but useful)
newSingleThreadExecutor, as well as time-based
newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor, allowing to specify delay for our
Runnables by passing them to
schedule method instead of
There is one case where the abstract nature of base
Executor class comes handy: testing and performance tuning. A certain types of executors can serve as good approximation of some common concurrency scenarios.
Suppose that we are normally handling our tasks using a pool with fixed number of threads, but we are not sure whether it’s actually the most optimal number. If our tasks appear to be mostly I/O-bound, it could be good idea to increase the thread count, seeing that threads waiting for I/O operations simply lay dormant for most of the time.
To see if our assumptions have grounds, and how big the increase can be, we can temporarily switch to cached thread pool. By experimenting with different levels of throughput and observing the average execution time along with numbers of threads used by application, we can get a sense of optimal number of threads for our fixed pool.
Similarly, we can adjust and possibly decrease this number for tasks that appear to be mostly CPU-bound.
Finally, it might be also sensible to use the single-threaded executor as a sort of “sanity check” for our complicated, parallel program. What we are checking this way is both correctness and performance, in rather simple and straightforward way.
For starters, our program should still compute correct results. Failing to do so serves as indication that seemingly correct behavior in multi-threaded setting may actually be an accidental side effect of unspotted hazards. In other words, threads might “align just right” if there is more than one running, and this would hide some insidious race conditions which we failed to account for.
As for performance, we should expect the single-thread code to run for longer time than its multi-thread variant. This is somewhat obvious observation that we might carelessly take for granted and thus never verify explicitly – and that’s a mistake. Indeed, it’s not unheard of to have parallelized algorithms which are actually slower than their serial counterparts. Throwing some threads is not a magic bullet, unfortunately: concurrency is still hard.